Despite the declining fertility rates, India is still expected to overtake China to become the most populated country in India. It is important that we know about India’s birthrate and population growth to understand and estimate the overall growth of the country. Here are some interesting facts about the birthrate of India.
The growth rate from 2001-2011
The population of India has grown by 181 million in this decade, which is nearly the overall population of Pakistan. However, the growth rate was seen to fall down by 4% during this time. It is the largest decline seen after India became an independent country.
The reason for the falling birth rate
Indians have now reduced their desire to have children, resulting in India’s falling birth rate. Today, women are giving birth to 2.5 children on average. Due to family policies and the use of contraception, fertility rates have gone down. While couples in West Bengal and Tamil Nady have an average fertility rate of 1.7, states like Bihar and Uttar Pradesh have up to 3.
The life expectancy has doubled in India in the past 70 years. Earlier the life expectancy was 38.7 for men and 37.1 for women. Today, it has increased to 64.4 for men and 67.6 for women. The death rate has seen a decline since independence. However, longer lives also mean more age-related problems. India is facing huge problems in senior healthcare.
The census of 2011 revealed that that are only 914 girls for every 1000 boys, which is less than 2001 when the ratio was 933:1000. Sex ratios are a major problem in urban areas. A major reason for such an unbalanced ratio is the abortion of a girl child and the preference for a son. Sex ratios are affected by the pressure that parents feel to take care of a girl.
UNICEF has revealed that 48% of the children in India are too small for their age. Children below age five are facing inadequate nutrition and healthcare. Undernutrition stops children from learning and growing, which later can have knock-on effects on Indian society as well as the economy. Indian labor, child trafficking, and commercial sexual exploitation are the major problems addressed by UNICEF that need attention.
The period of high fertility is over
The population trends are coming to an end after reaching the peaks in the past decade. The fertility rates can decline to the levels that can become a concern for India. If the fertility rates keep declining at this rate, India is expected to have a population of 900 million by 2021. Today the population of India is 1.3 billion. It is one-sixth of the population of the world.